Journal Articles

When the South River Science Team has conducted research as a team or independently, members have documented their work in peer-reviewed scientific journals. These articles provide an unbiased representation of the background, methods used, findings, and significance of the work.


Ziaei, Hasti, Balaji Rao, Tea V. Wood, Uriel Garza-Rubalcava, Ashkan Alborzi, Huayun Zhou, Paul Bireta, Nancy Grosso, and Danny Reible. February 2023. “Assessment and Management of Mercury Leaching from a RiverbankToxics 2023,11,179.


Clemons,Joseph E. 2020.  Repeated Terrestrial-Laser-Scanner Surveys of Riverbanks Along the South River, VA.  University of Delaware. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 28028647.

Teears, Thom D., S.J. Baedke, D.M. Downey, J.A. Studio & C.L. May. 2020. “Water chemistry and light effects on survival of hatching salmonids in spring channels.” Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 35:1, 13-28.

Alana Ou Wang. 2020. “Application of Biochar to Stabilize Mercury in Riverbank Sediments and Floodplain Soils from South River, VA under Conditions Relevant to Riverine Environments.” UWSPACE – University of Waterloo Space Institutional Repository.

Wang, Alana O., C.J. Ptacek, D.W. Blowes, Y.Z. Finfrock, D. Paktunc, E.E. Mack. 2020.”Use of hardwood and sulfurized-hardwood biochars as amendments to floodplain soil from South River, VA, USA: Impacts of drying-rewetting on Hg removal. Science of The Total Environment, Volume 712, 136018.

Alana O. Wang,Alana O. , C.J. Ptacek, E.E. Mack, D.W. Blowes. 2021.
“Impact of multiple drying and rewetting events on biochar amendments for Hg stabilization in floodplain soil from South River, VA.” Chemosphere, Volume 262, 127794.

David Wilcox, M. Whitehurst, R. Atwood, P. Bsumek, B. Wiggins. 2020. “Mercury Pollution and Cleanup in the South River, VirginiaUnderstanding the Role of Fate and Transport in the Decision-Making Process for Environmental Remediation.” Case Studies in the Environment 1 January 2020; 4 (1): 962226.


Berg SJ, Grosso NR, Sherrier MP, Mudrick K, Ohr M, Hwang HT, Park YJ, Callaghan MV, Frey SK, Sudicky EA. Natural Stimuli Calibration with Fining Direction Regularization in an Integrated Hydrologic Model. Ground Water. 2019 Jan;57(1):21-35. doi: 10.1111/gwat.12842. Epub 2018 Dec 4. PMID: 30407623.

Flanders, J.R; G. Long;  B. Reese; N. Grosso; W. Clements and R. Stahl Jr. 2019. “Assessment of Potential Mercury Toxicity to Native Invertebrates in a High-Gradient Stream.” Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management: 15(3): 374-384 .

Haskins D.L., R.M. Gogal, T.D. Tuberville. 2019. “Snakes as Novel Biomarkers of Mercury Contamination: A Review.” In: de Voogt P. (eds) Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 249. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (Continuation of Residue Reviews), vol 249. Springer, Cham.

Hutchens, Julia, “Dry river watershed valuation and management plan” (2019). James Madison University Scholary Commons. Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current. 684.

Johs, Alexander, V. Eller, T.L. Mehlhorn, S.C. Brooks, D.P. Harper, M.A. Mayes, E.M. Pierce, M.J. Peterson. 2019. “Dissolved organic matter reduces the effectiveness of sorbents for mercury removal.”
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 690,2019,Pages 410-416.

Lazareva, O., Sparks, D.L., Landis, R. et al. “Investigation of legacy industrial mercury in floodplain soils: South River, Virginia, USA.” Environmental Earth Science 78, 246 (2019).


Chang, G., et al. 2018. “OPTically‐based In situ Characterization System (OPTICS) to quantify concentrations and mass fluxes of mercury and methylmercury in South River, Virginia, USA.” River Research and Applications: 34(9): 1132-1141.

Liu, P., C.J. Ptacek, D.W. Blowes. 2019. “Mercury Complexation with Dissolved Organic Matter Released from Thirty-Six Types of Biochar.” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology 103,175–180.

Liu, P., C.J. Ptacek, D.W.  Blowes, W.D. Gould. 2018. “Control of Mercury and Methylmercury in Contaminated Sediments Using Biochar: A Long-term Microcosm Study.” Applied Geochemistry: 92, 30-34.

Paris, O.J., et al. 2018. “Exposure to Dietary Methyl-Mercury Solely during Embryonic and Juvenile Development Halves Subsequent Reproductive Success in Adult Zebra Finches.” Environmental Science & Technology: 52(5):3117-3124.

Vrtlar, T. 2018. Optimization of DGT Methyl Mercury Recovery, Bank Leaching Assessment and Evaluation of Stabilization Efforts on Mercury Fate and Transport in Freshwater Systems. Dissertation in Civil Engineering, Texas Tech University, August.


Brent, R.N.; H.M. Wines; J.C. Luther; N.L. Irving; J. Collins; and B.L. Drake. 2017. “Validation of Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence for In Situ Measurement of Mercury in Soils.” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering: 5:768-776.

Harris, M.J.; J.M. Stinson; and W.G. Landis. 2017. “A Bayesian Approach to Integrated Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment for the South River, Virginia Mercury-Contaminated Site.” Risk Analysis.

Johns, A.F.; S.E. Graham; M.J. Harris; A.J. Markiewicz; J.M. Stinson; and W.G. Landis. 2017. “Using the Bayesian Network Relative Risk Model Risk Assessment Process to Evaluate Management Alternatives for the South River and Upper Shenandoah River, Virginia.” Integrated Environmental  Assessment Management: 13:100-114.

Landis, W.G.; K.K. Ayre; A.F. Johns; H.M. Summers; J. Stinson; M.J. Harris; C.E. Herring; and A.J. Markiewicz. 2017. “The Multiple Stressor Ecological Risk Assessment for the Mercury Contaminated South River and Upper Shenandoah River Using the Bayesian Network-Relative Risk Model.” Integrated Environmental  Assessment Management: 13:85-99.

Landis, W.G.; A.J. Markiewicz; K.K. Ayre; A.F. Johns; M.J. Harris; J.M. Stinson; and H.M. Summers. 2017. “A General Risk-Based Adaptive Management Scheme Incorporating the Bayesian Network Relative Risk Model with the South River, Virginia, as Case Study.” Integrated Environmental  Assessment Management: 13:115-126.

Liu, P., C.J. Ptacek, D.W.  Blowes, Y.Z.  Finfrock, R.A. Gordon. 2017. “Stabilization of Mercury in Sediment by Using Biochars Under Reducing Conditions.” Journal of Hazardous Materials: 325, 120-128.

Swaddle, J.P.; T.R. Diehl; C.E. Taylor; A.S. Fanaee; J.L. Benson; N.R. Huckstep; and D.A. Cristol. 2017. “Exposure to Dietary Mercury Alters Cognition and Behavior of Zebra Finches.” Current Zoology: 63(2), 213-219. 10.1093/cz/zox007.

Washburn, S.J.; J.D. Blum; J.D. Demers; A.Y. Kurz; and R.C. Landis. 2017. “Isotopic Characterization of Mercury Downstream of Historic Industrial Contamination in the South River, Virginia.” Environmental Science & Technology: 51(19):10965-10973.

Whitney, M.C. and D.A. Cristol. 2017. “Impacts of Sublethal Mercury Exposure on Birds: A Detailed Review.” Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (Continuation of Residue Reviews). Springer, New York, NY.

Zhao, Xiaomin and Wu-Seng Lung. 2017. “Modeling the fate and transport of 17β-estradiol in the South River watershed in Virginia.” Chemosphere: Volume 186, November 2017, Pages 780-789.


Buck, K.A.; C.W. Varian-Ramos; D.A. Cristol; and J.P. Swaddle. 2016. “Blood Mercury Levels of Zebra Finches Are Heritable: Implications for the Evolution of Mercury Resistance.” PLOS ONE: 11(9).

Liu, P., C.J. Ptacek, D.W. Blowes, R.C. Landis. 2016. “Mechanisms of Mercury Removal by Biochars Produced from Different Feedstocks Determined Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.” Journal of Hazardous Materials: 325, 120-128.

Paulson, K.M.A., C.J. Ptacek, D.W. Blowes, W.D. Gould, J. Ma, R.C. Landis, J.A. Dyer. 2016. “Role of Organic Carbon Sources and Sulfate in South River, VA (USA).” Geomicrobiology Journal: 0, 1-14.

Seewagen, C.L.; D.A. Cristol; and A.R. Gerson. 2016. “Mobilization of Mercury from Lean Tissues during Simulated Migratory Fasting in a Model Songbird.” Science Reports: 6 (25762).



Caudill, M.T.; E.L. Spear; C.W. Varian-Ramos; and D.A. Cristol. 2015. “PHA-Stimulated Immune-Responsiveness in Mercury-Dosed Zebra Finches Does Not Match Results from Environmentally Exposed Songbirds.” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 94(4):407-11. April.

Desrochers, K.A.N., K.M.A. Paulson, C.J.  Ptacek, D.W. Blowes, W.D. Gould. 2015. “Effect of Electron Donor to Sulfate Ratio on Mercury Methylation in Floodplain Sediments Under Saturated Flow Conditions.” Geomicrobiology Journal: 32, 924-933.

Foran, C.M.; K.M. Baker; N.R. Grosso; and I. Linkov. 2015. “An Enhanced Adaptive Management Approach for Remediation of Legacy Mercury in the South River.” PLOS ONE 10(2):e0117140.

Gibson, B.D., C.J. Ptacek, D.W. Blowes, S.D. Daugherty. 2015. “Sediment Resuspension Under Variable Geochemical Conditions and Implications for Contaminant Release.” Journal of Soils and Sediments: 15, 1644-1656.

Harris, M.J. 2015. Integrated Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the South River, Virginia:  A Bayesian ApproachMasters Thesis. Western Washington University. May 22. 413 pp.

Henry, K.A.; D.A. Cristol; C.W. Varian-Ramos; and E.L. Bradley. 2015. “Oxidative Stress in Songbirds Exposed to Dietary Methylmercury.” Ecotoxicology 24(3):520-6. April.

Jackson, A.K.; D.C. Evers; E.M. Adams; D.A. Cristol; C. Eagles-Smith; S.T. Edmonds; C.E. Gray; B. Hoskins; O.P. Lane; A. Sauer; and T. Tear. 2015. “Songbirds as Sentinels of Mercury in Terrestrial Habitats of Eastern North America.” Ecotoxicology 24(2):453-67. March.

Liu, P; C.J. Ptacek; D.W. Blowes; W.R. Berti; and R.C. Landis. 2015. “Aqueous Leaching of Organic Acids and Dissolved Organic Carbon from Various Biochars Prepared at Different Temperatures.” Journal of Environmental Quality 44(2), 684-695.

Maddux, S.L.; D.A. Cristol; C.W. Varian-Ramos; and E.L. Bradley. 2015. “The Effect of Mercury on Baseline Corticosterone in a Breeding Songbird.” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 94(2):135-9. February.

McCullagh, E.A.; D.A. Cristol; and J.B. Phillips. 2015. “Plumage Color and Reproductive Output of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) Nesting Near a Mercury-Contaminated River.” Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 50(10):1020-8.

Ou, L.; C.W. Varian-Ramos; and D.A. Cristol. 2015. “Effect of Laying Sequence on Egg Mercury in Captive Zebra Finches: An Interpretation Considering Individual Variation.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34(8):1787-92. August.


Brent, R.N. and D.A. Berberich.  2014. “Use of Artificial Stream Mesocosms to Investigate Mercury Uptake in the South River, Virginia, USA.” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 66:201-212.

Carlson, J.R.; D. Cristol; and J.P. Swaddle.  2014. “Dietary Mercury Exposure Causes Decreased Escape Takeoff Flight Performance and Increased Molt Rate in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).” Ecotoxicology 23(8):1464-1473. October.

Cristol, D.A.; K.M. Johnson; K.D. Jenkins; and D.M. Hawley. 2014. “Timing of Feather Molt Related to Date of Spring Migration in Male White-Throated Sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis.” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology 321(10):586-94. December.

Johns, Annie F. (Annie Franklin) 2014. Calculating Risk Change with Management Actions Using Bayesian Networks for the South River, Virginia, USA. Master’s Thesis. Western Washington University Graduate School Collection. 357.

Moore, C.S.; D.A. Cristol; S.L. Maddux; C.W. Varian-Ramos; and E.L. Bradley. 2014. “Lifelong Exposure to Methylmercury Disrupts Stress-Induced Corticosterone Response in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata).” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33(5):1072-1076. May.

Paulson, Kristen; M.A. 2014. Methylmercury Production in Riverbank Sediments of the South River, Virginia (USA) and Assessment of Biochar as a Mercury Treatment Option. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 113 pp. UWSpace.

Skalak, K.J. and J. Pizzuto.  2014.  “Reconstructing Suspended Sediment Mercury Contamination of a Steep, Gravel-Bed River Using Reservoir Theory.” Environmental Geosciences 21(1):17-35.

Stahl, Jr., R.G.; D. Kain; P. Bugas; N.R. Grosso; A. Guiseppi-Elie; and M.R. Liberati. 2014. “Applying a Watershed-Level, Risk-Based Approach to Addressing Legacy Mercury Contamination in the South River, Virginia: Planning and Problem Formulation.”  Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 20(2):316-345.

Stotts, S.; M. O’Neal; J. Pizzuto; and C. Hupp.  2014.  “Exposed Tree Root Analysis as a Dendrogeomorphic Approach to Estimating Bank Retreat at the South River, Virginia.” Geomorphology 223:10-18.

Varian-Ramos, C.W.; J.P. Swaddle; and D.A. Cristol. 2014. “Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success and Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study with Adult- or Lifetime-Exposure in Zebra Finch.” PLOS One 23;9(4):e95674. April.

White, A.E. and D.A. Cristol. 2014. “Plumage Coloration in Belted Kingfishers (Megaceryle alcyon) at a Mercury-Contaminated River.”  Waterbirds 37(2):144-152.

Yates, D.M.; E.M. Adams; S.E. Angelo; D.C. Evers; J. Schmerfeld; M.S. Moore; T.H. Kunz; T. Divoll; S.T. Edmonds; C. Perkins; R. Taylor; and N.J. O’Driscoll.  2014.  “Mercury in Bats from the Northeastern United States.” Ecotoxicology 23(1):45-55.


Berti, W.R.; A. Guiseppi-Elie; E. Quinn; R.H. Jensen; and D. Cocking. 2013. “Evaluation of Garden Crop Mercury Uptake and Potential Exposure from Consumption of Garden Crops Grown on Floodplain Soils.” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 19:215-231.

Chin, S.Y.; J.D. Willson; D.A. Cristol; D.V.V. Drewett; and W.A. Hopkins.  2013.  “Altered Behavior of Neonatal Northern Watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) Exposed to Maternally Transferred Mercury.”  Environmental Pollution 176:144-150.

Chin, S.Y.; J.D. Willson; D.A. Cristol; D.V.V. Drewett; and W.A. Hopkins.  2013.  “High Levels of Maternally Transferred Mercury Do Not Affect Reproductive Output or Embryonic Survival of Northern Watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon).”  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32(3):619-626.  March.

Desrochers, Krista A.N. 2013. Geochemical Characterization and Assessment of Stabilization Mechanisms for Mercury-Contaminated Riverbank Sediments from the South River, Virginia (USA). UW Space. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 115 pp.

Drewett, D.V.; J.D. Willson; D.A. Cristol; S.Y. Chin; and W.A. Hopkins. 2013. “Inter- and Intraspecific Variation in Mercury Bioaccumulation by Snakes Inhabiting a Contaminated River Floodplain.”  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32(5):1178-1186.

Hopkins, B.C.; M.J. Hepner; and W.A. Hopkins. 2013. “Non-Destructive Techniques for Biomonitoring of Spatial, Temporal, and Demographic Patterns of Mercury Bioaccumulation and Maternal Transfer in Turtles.” Environmental Pollution 177:164-70. June.

Hopkins, B.C. and J.D. Willson. 2013. “Mercury Exposure Is Associated with Negative Effects on Turtle Reproduction.” Environmental Science & Technology 47(5):2416-2. March 5.

Hopkins, B.C.; S.Y. Chin; J.D. Willson; and W.A. Hopkins.  2013.  “Like Mother, Like Offspring: Maternal and Offspring Wound Healing Correlate in Snakes.”  The Journal of Experimental Biology 216:2545-2547.

Riva-Murray, K.; P.M. Bradley; B.C. Scudder Eikenberry; C.D. Knightes; C.A. Journey; M.E. Brigham; and D.T. Button.  2013.  “Optimizing Stream Water Mercury Sampling for Calculation of Fish Bioaccumulation Factors.” Environmental Science & Technology 47(11):5904-5912. June 4.

Varian-Ramos, C.W.; J.P. Swaddle; and D.A. Cristol. 2013. “Familial Differences in the Effects of Mercury on Reproduction in Zebra Finches.” Environmental Pollution 182:316-23. November.

Wang, J. and M.C. Newman. 2013. “Projected Hg Dietary Exposure of 3 Bird Species Nesting on a Contaminated Floodplain (South River, Virginia, USA).”Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9(2):285-293.

Wang, J.; M.C. Newman; X. Xu; and L. Liang. 2013. “Higher and More Variable Methylmercury Biomagnification Factors for Floodplain than the Contiguous River (South River, Virginia USA).” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 92:191-198.

Willson, J.D. and W.A. Hopkins. 2013. “Evaluating the Effects of Anthropogenic Stressors on Source-Sink Dynamics in Pond-Breeding Amphibians.” Conservation Biology 27(3):595-604. June.


Nam, D-H.; D. Yates; P. Ardapple; D.C. Evers; J. Schmerfeld; and N. Basu.  2012.  “Elevated Mercury Exposure and Neurochemical Alterations in Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) from a Site with Historical Mercury Contamination.”  Ecotoxicology 21(4):1094-2101.  May.

Northam, W.T.; L.A. Allison; and D.A. Cristol.  2012.  “Using Group-Specific PCR to Detect Predation of Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) by Wolf Spiders (Lycosidae) at a Mercury-Contaminated Site.  Science of the Total Environment 416:225-231.  February 1.

Pizzuto, J. 2012. “Predicting the Accumulation of Mercury-Contaminated Sediment on Riverbanks—An Analytical Approach.” Water Resources Research 48(7). July.

Summers, H.M. 2012. “The Use of a Bayesian Network to Calculate the Risks of Mercury Contamination to Fish and Birds of the South River, Virginia.” Master’s Thesis. Western Washington University. May 16.

Todd, B.D.; C.M. Bergeron; and W.A. Hopkins.  2012. “Use of Toe Clips as a Nonlethal Index of Mercury Accumulation and Maternal Transfer in Amphibians.”  Ecotoxicology 21(3):882-887.  April.

Todd, B.D.; J.D. Willson; C.M. Bergeron; and W.A. Hopkins.  2012.  “Do Effects of Mercury in Larval Amphibians Persist after Metamorphosis?”  Ecotoxicology21(1):87-95.  January.

Willson, J.D.; W.A. Hopkins; C.M. Bergeron; and B.D. Todd. 2012. “Making Leaps in Amphibian Ecotoxicology: Translating Individual-Level Effects of Contaminants to Population Viability.” Ecological Applications 22(6):1791-802. September.

Yu, R.Q.; J.R. Flanders; E.E. Mack; R. Turner; M.B. Mirza; and T. Barkay. 2012. “Contribution of Coexisting Sulfate and Iron Reducing Bacteria to Methylmercury Production in Freshwater River Sediments.” Environmental Science & Technology 46(5):2684-91. March 6.


Bergeron, C.M.; W.A. Hopkins; C.M. Bodinof; S.A. Budischak; H. Wada; and J.M. Unrine. 2011. “Counterbalancing Effects of Maternal Mercury Exposure During Different Stages of Early Ontogeny in American Toads.” Science of the Total Environment 409(22):4746-52. October 15.

Bergeron, C.M.; W.A. Hopkins; B.D. Todd; M.J. Hepner; and J.M. Unrine.  2011.  “Interactive Effects of Maternal and Dietary Mercury Exposure Have Latent and Lethal Consequences for Amphibian Larvae.” Environmental Science & Technology 45:3781-3787.

Brent, R.N. and D.G. Kain.  2011.  “Development of an Empirical Nonlinear Model for Mercury Bioaccumulation in the South and South Fork Shenandoah Rivers of Virginia.”  Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 61(4):614-623.  November.

Bugas, Jr., P.E. 2011. Angler Survey: South River, Augusta County and Waynesboro, VA, May – September 2011. F-111-R. 25 pp

Bundschuh, M.; J.P. Zubrod; F. Seitz; M.C. Newman; and R. Schulz. 2011. “Mercury-Contaminated Sediments Affect Amphipod Feeding.” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 60(3):437-443.

Chalmers, A.T.; D.M. Argue; D.A. Gay; M.E. Brigham; C.J. Schmitt; and D.L. Lorenz. 2011. “Mercury Trends in Fish from Rivers and Lakes in the United States, 1969-2005.” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 175:175-191. 

Gibson, B.D.; C.J. Ptacek; M.B. Lindsay; and D.W. Blowes. 2011. “Examining Mechanisms of Groundwater Hg(II) Treatment by Reactive Materials: An EXAFS Study.” Environmental Science & Technology 45(24):10415-21. December 15.

Hallinger, K.K.; K.L. Cornell; R.L. Brasso; and D.A. Cristol. 2011. “Mercury Exposure and Survival in Free-Living Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).”Ecotoxicology 20(1):39-46.

Hallinger, K.K. and D.A. Cristol.  2011.  “The Role of Weather in Mediating the Effect of Mercury Exposure on Reproductive Success in Tree Swallows.”  Ecotoxicology 20(6):1368-1377.  August.

Jackson, A.K.; D.C. Evers; S.B. Folsom; A.M. Condon; J. Diener; L.F. Goodrick; A.J. McGann; J. Schmerfeld; D.A. Cristol.  2011.  “Mercury Exposure in Terrestrial Birds Far Downstream of An Historical Point Source.”  Environmental Pollution 159(12):3302–3308.  December.

Newman, M.C.; X. Xu; A. Condon; and L. Liang. 2011. “Floodplain Methylmercury Biomagnification Factor Higher Than That of the Contiguous River (South River, Virginia USA). Environmental Pollution 159(10):2840-2844.

Reeser, Stephen J. 2011. 2011 South Fork Shenandoah River Angler Creel Survey. 14 pp.

Todd, B.D.; C.M. Bergeron; M.J. Hepner; and W.A. Hopkins. 2011. “Aquatic and Terrestrial Stressors in Amphibians: A Test of the Double Jeopardy Hypothesis Based on Maternally and Trophically Derived Contaminants.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20(10):2277-2284.

Todd, B.D.; C.M. Bergeron; M.J. Hepner; J.N. Burke; and W.A. Hopkins.  2011. “Does Maternal Exposure to an Environmental Stressor Affect Offspring Response to Predators?”  Oecologia 166(1):283–290.  May.

Varian-Ramos, C.W.; A.M. Condon; K.K. Hallinger; K.A. Carlson-Drexler; and D.A. Cristol.  2011.  “Stability of Mercury Concentrations in Frozen Avian Blood Samples.”  Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 86(2):159-162.  February.

Wada, H.; C.M. Bergeron; F.M. McNabb; B.D. Todd; and W.A. Hopkins.  2011.  “Dietary Mercury Has No Observable Effects on Thyroid-Mediated Processes and Fitness-Related Traits in Wood Frogs.”  Environmental Science and Technology 45(18):7915-7922.  September 15.

Yu, R.; J. Flanders; E.E. Mack; R.R. Turner; M. Bilal Mirza; and T. Barkay. 2011. “Contribution of Coexisting Sulfate and Iron Reducing Bacteria to Methylmercury Production in Freshwater River Sediments.” Environmental Science and Technology. 46(5): 2684–2691.


Bergeron, C.M.; C.M. Bodinof; J.M. Unrine; and W.A. Hopkins. 2010. “Mercury Accumulation along a Contaminated Gradient and Nondestructive Indices of Bioaccumulation in Amphibians.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(4): 980-988.

Bergeron, C.M.; C.M. Bodinof; J.M. Unrine; and W.A. Hopkins. 2010. “Bioaccumulation and Maternal Transfer of Mercury and Selenium in Amphibians.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(4): 989-997.

Brasso, R.L.; M.K. Abdel Latif; and D.A. Cristol. 2010. “Relationship Between Laying Sequence and Mercury Concentrations in Tree Swallow Eggs.”Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(5): 1155-1159.

Burke J.N.; C.M. Bergeron; B.D. Todd; and W.A. Hopkins.  2010.  “Effects of Mercury on Behavior and Performance of Northern Two-Lined Salamanders (Eurycea bislineata).”  Environmental Pollution 158(12):3546-3551.  December.

Flanders, J.R.; R.R. Turner; T. Morrison; R. Jensen; J. Pizzuto; K. Skalak; and R. Stahl. 2010. “Distribution, Behavior, and Transport of Inorganic and Methylmercury in a High Gradient Stream.” Applied Geochemistry 25: 1756-1769.

Hallinger, K.K. and D.A. Cristol. 2010. “Use of Chemical Tracer to Detect Floaters in a Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) Population. Journal of Environmental Indicators 5(1): 7-16.

Hallinger, K.K.; D.J. Zabransky; K.A. Kazmer; and D.A. Cristol. 2010. “Birdsong Differs Between Mercury-Polluted and Reference Sites.” The Auk 127:156-161.

Neufeld, D.S.G.  2010.  “Mercury Accumulation in Caged Corbicula: Rate of Uptake and Seasonal Variation.”  Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 168:385-396.

Newman, M.C. 2010. Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology: Third Edition. p. 150-152.

O’Neal, M.A. and J.E. Pizzuto. 2010. “The Rates and Spatial Patterns of Annual Riverbank Erosion Revealed Through Terrestrial Laser-Scanner Surveys of the South River, Virginia.” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

Pizzuto J.; M. O’Neal; and S. Stotts.  2010.  “On the Retreat of Forested, Cohesive Riverbanks.”  Geomorphology 116(3-4):341–352.  April.

Skalak, K. and J. Pizzuto.  2010.  “The Distribution and Residence Time of Suspended Sediment Stored within the Channel Margins of a Gravel-Bed Bedrock River.”  Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 35(4):435-446.

Sleeman, J.M.; D.A. Cristol; A.E. White; D.C. Evers; R.W. Gerhold; and M.K. Keel. 2010. “Mercury Poisoning in a Free-Living Northern River Otter (Lontra canadensis).” Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46(3): 1035-1039.

Tom, K.R.; M.C. Newman; and J. Schmerfeld. 2010. “Modeling Mercury Biomagnification (South River, Virginia, USA) to Inform River Management Decision Making.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(4): 1013-1020.

Wada, H.; D.E. Yates; D.C. Evers; R.J. Taylor; and W.A. Hopkins. 2010. “Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Adrenocortical Responses of Female Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) Near a Contaminated River.” Ecotoxicology 19:1277-1284.


Condon, A.M. and D.A. Cristol. 2009. “Feather Growth Influences Blood Mercury Level of Young Songbirds.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(2):395

Eggleston, J. 2009. Mercury Loads in the South River and Simulation of Mercury Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for the South River, South Fork Shenandoah River, and Shenandoah River—Shenandoah Valley, Virginia. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5076. 80 p.

Hawley, D.M.; Hallinger, K.K.; and D.A. Cristol. 2009. “Compromised Immune Competence in Free-Living Tree Swallows Exposed to Mercury.” Ecotoxicology 18(5): 499-503.

Pizzuto, J. 2009. “An Empirical Model of Event Scale Cohesive Bank Profile Evolution.” Earth Surface Processes and Landfarms 34(9): 1234-1244.

Pizzuto, J.E. and M.A. O’Neal, M.A. 2009. “Increased Mid-Twentieth Century Riverbank Erosion Rates Related to the Demise of Mill Dams, South River, Virginia.” Geology 37(1):19-22.

Rhoades, E.L.; M.A. O’Neal; and J.E. Pizzuto. 2009. “Quantifying Bank Erosion on the South River from 1937 to 2005, and Its Importance in Assessing Hg Contamination.” Applied Geography 29:125–134.

Skalak, K. and J. Pizzuto. 2009. “Modeling a Century of Pollution in the South River: A Geological Approach.” Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs Vol. 41, No. 7, p. 80.

Skalak, K.; J. Pizzuto; and D. Hart. 2009. “Influence of Small Dams on Downstream Channel Characteristics in Pennsylvania and Maryland: Implications for the Longterm Geomorphic Effects of Dam Removal.” Journal of American Water Resources Association 5(1): 97-109.

Wada, H.; D.A. Cristol; F.M.A. McNabb; and W.A. Hopkins. 2009. “Suppressed Adrenocortical Responses and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Birds Near a Mercury Contaminated River.” Environmental Science and Technology 43(15), p. 6031-6038.


Brasso, R.L. and D.A. Cristol. 2008. “Effects of Mercury Exposure on the Reproductive Success of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).” Ecotoxicology 17(2):133-141.

Cristol, D.A.; R.L. Brasso; A.M. Condon; R.E. Fovargue; S.L. Friedman; K.K. Hallinger; A.P. Monroe; and A.E. White. 2008. “The Movement of Aquatic Mercury through Terrestrial Food Webs.” Science 320:335.

Friedman, S.L.; R.L. Brasso; and A.M. Condon. 2008. “An Improved, Simple Nest-Box Trap.” Journal of Field Ornithology 79:99-101.

Monroe, A.P.; K.K. Hallinger; R.L. Brasso; and D.A. Cristol. 2008. “Occurrence and Implications of Double Brooding in a Southern Population of Tree Swallows.” Condor 110: 382-386.



Bergeron, C.M.; J.F. Husak; J.M. Unrine; C.S. Romanek; and W.A. Hopkins. 2007. “Influence of Feeding Ecology on Blood Mercury Concentrations in Four Species of Turtles.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(8):1733-1741.

Murphy, G.W.; T.J. Newcomb; and D.J. Orth. 2007. “Sexual and Seasonal Variations of Mercury in Smallmouth Bass.” Journal of Freshwater Ecology 22(1):135-143.


Fleming, E.J.; E.E. Mack; P.G. Green; D.C. Nelson.  2006.  “Mercury Methylation from Unexpected Sources: Molybdate-Inhibited Freshwater Sediments and an Iron-Reducing Bacterium.”  Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72(1):457-464.  January.

McClain, J. 2006. “A Different Kind of Meth Lab.” Ideation.


Bloom, N.S.; E. Preus; J. Katon; M. Hiltner. 2003. “Selective Extractions to Assess the Biogeochemically Relevant Fractionation of Inorganic Mercury in Sediments and Soils.” Analytica Chimica Acta 479:233-248.

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